Artworks and Artists of Yōga

Progression of Art
Takahashi Yuichi: Salmon (c.1877)


Artist: Takahashi Yuichi

This realistic work on paper focuses with sharply observed detail on a single salmon, a cord laced through its gills, as it hangs vertically against a cedar colored background. The upper part of the salmon has been filleted, displaying the reddish pink flesh cut down to the spine and bones. The vertical format of the work emphasizes the elemental form of the fish, the shadow outlining the fish, and the cord that holds it on the left to create a sense of depth, of the salmon partially suspended above the board. The remarkable texture of the skin in the lower part of the body is not only accurate but conveys a sense of daily life.

Yuichi felt that painting, through realistic depiction, could convey a sense of Japanese culture, and the image of a partially filleted salmon, prepared for guests, was a motif commonly used in small Japanese carved wood decorative pieces. Unlike the Western still life's emphasis on plenty, this work emphasizes a simple but essential element of Japanese life.

This painting received a great deal of attention when it was shown in 1877 in Kyoto and made a powerful argument for reviving Japanese art and making it equal to Western art. As art historian Michael Sullivan wrote, "Nothing quite like this had been seen in Japan before. Painted, like his still lifes of this period, with a new honesty and feeling for texture - he was the first to see Western oil painting as a means of expression - this is a key work in the birth of modern art in Japan, standing out in contrast to the labored imitations of European salon painting then in fashion."

Oil on paper - The University Art Museum, Tokyo University of the Arts, Tokyo, Japan

Asai Chū: Spring Ridge (1889)

Spring Ridge

Artist: Asai Chū

This landscape, reflecting the influence of the Barbizon School's Naturalism upon early Yōga painters, shows several farmers working with implements in the dark green furrows of their fields. The painting is horizontally divided into thirds between the fields, the thatched roofs of the village among the trees above, and a clouded sky, creating a sense of balance and of a life lived in harmony with nature. Curving lines - at the edge of the field, in the opening between the trees in the left middle distance, and the concave curve of the tree line - contrast with the diagonals of human activity and presence, marked in the furrows of the field and the ruts of the road. This use of line to create composition, dividing the pictorial plane into broad distinct areas is an essential characteristic of Japanese art, though here expressed through the Western form of oil painting. The dark earth tones of the fields and farmers create a feeling of intense and somber activity lightened by the presence of the white flowering trees that bloom along the horizontal center of the work and intensifying toward the whitish blue sky.

Asia's en plein air painting was influential not only upon other painters, but also upon Japanese writers like Massaoka Shiki who created a fresh approach to haiku, based upon contemporary realism, rather than worn literary allusions. Shiki called his haiku "sketching from life" and it became a dominant literary form in the early 1900s as literary magazines like Hototogisu encouraged submissions in the style.

Oil on canvas - Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, Japan

Kuroda Seiki: A Maiko Girl (1893)

A Maiko Girl

Artist: Kuroda Seiki

This painting depicts a maiko girl, a young woman trained in playing music to entertain guests, in a vibrantly colored silk kimono sitting on a bench in an open sliding partition. An older server woman in a greyish blue kimono is profiled on the right, her face turned toward the young woman, as if in a moment of interrupted conversation. The young woman is framed by the open partition and the vibrant pond behind her, its blue and violet punctuated with yellow and white. Kuroda's Impressionistic use of vibrant color and light effects changed Japanese Yōga painting from its previous somber palette derived from the Barbizon School. At the same time, his subject is very much within the Japanese tradition of bijin-ga, images of beautiful women that often focused on maiko girls and geishas.

In the 1880s Kuroda spent almost a decade in France, studying art with Raphael Collin. When he returned to Japan in 1894, he said, "Visiting Kyoto, I had a feeling of coming to a strange country named Japan which is outside of the world," and he said of the maiko girls of Kyoto, "I have the same feeling as Westerners who describe Japanese females as pretty small birds. They look like very rare, pretty and fragile decorations." With her bright clothing and posture, the young woman does convey a sense of a brightly colored bird having just alighted, and the decorative effect appealed to both a Japanese audience, accustomed to bijin-ga, and to Western tastes inclined toward Japonism that favored the exotic and decorative elements of Japanese art. Nonetheless, the young woman with her right arm extended to the railing and her left on the frame of the partition as if having just opened it, and her vibrant direct expression, seems full of confidence and authority. What the artist conveyed here was a kind of intimacy, as the work, creates a sense of communicable feeling between the two women. A young Japanese artist Kobayashi Mango described the effect of encountering Kuroda's work, " It is like a feeling of seeing a ray of light all of sudden while walking a dark field path. Surprisingly, it was not just me thinking like this."

Oil on canvas - Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, Japan

Kuroda Seiki: Chi Kan Jo (Wisdom, Impression, Sentiment) (1897)

Chi Kan Jo (Wisdom, Impression, Sentiment)

Artist: Kuroda Seiki

This triptych depicts three nudes, which symbolize, from left to right: Sentiment with her right hand touching her hair, Impression with both hands raised to head level, and Wisdom, her right hand touching her brow. Only Impression in the center panel faces forward, looking toward the viewer, while the other two women turn slightly toward her, their gazes looking down. The simplified composition combines a three-dimensional naturalistic, figurative treatment with the Japanese ma, or negative space of the gold background traditionally found in byobu, or folding screens. As a result of the non-naturalistic background, the symbolism of the figures is enhanced. The concepts these figures embody were derived more from the artist's own thinking, rather than correlating to any Eastern or Western definition, and by presenting a triptych, often reserved for religious subjects in Western classical art, he intended to convey a sense of the timeless and sacred, embodied in these figures.

The painting was created in Japan, following Kuroda's return from Paris, and after he had been named a professor of Yōga at the Tokyo School of Fine Art. It was, in a sense, his artistic argument in favor of the nude as a subject for Japanese art following the controversial showing of Morning Toilette. In Wisdom, Impression, Sentiment, he drew upon not only the Western tradition of the nude, but upon the French Neoclassical tradition of the nude within an allegorical context, and combined it with the gilded backgrounds of traditional Japanese folding screens.

The work was shown in Japan at the 1897 2nd Hakuba-kai Exhibition and, subsequently, at the Paris 1900 International Exposition where it was awarded a silver medal. To his Japanese audience, the nude itself was controversial, and the attribution of abstract qualities to each of the figures only added to the controversy in contrast to European tradition where allegorical treatments made the nude more acceptable. Even the process of creating the painting was pioneering, as Kuroda introduced the practice of working from a live model, and employed for the first time, a Japanese model to create the nude. Kuroda's work and teaching was widely influential, as he introduced Western subjects and approaches, leading to his being dubbed, "the father of modern Japanese western-style painting."

Oil on canvas - Kuroda Memorial Hall, National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, Japan

Wada Eisaku: Old Woman (1908)

Old Woman

Artist: Wada Eisaku

This painting, depicting a radiant body of water beneath a setting sun, focuses on the single figure of an old woman, bent in profile on the right, her left hand gripping her long umbrella as if it were a cane, while she focuses on the path in front of her feet. She walks along a dirt road, bordered by grasses, plants, and a bit of shore that gives way to luminous gold and rosy waters, illuminated by the horizontal line of the sun's light intersecting the canvas on the right. The contrast between the flowing forms of water and land and the upright form of the woman and vertical line of reflected sun suggests the transitory nature of human life. The woman ignores the sublime view, focusing intently at the step before her, and the setting sun alludes to her age, still leaning forward into the flow of the water and road but already bent by natural forces.

The painting's subject, a humble person in an ordinary activity, draws upon the Edo period's portrayal of everyday life and Japanese leisure activities Yet, this work's effect is almost photographic, and shows the influence of Jules Bastien-Lepage's Naturalism, to which Wada as part of the first graduating class of the Tokyo Art School's Western Painting Department was introduced while studying with Kuroda.

Oil on canvas - National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan

Yorozu Tetsugoro: Nude Beauty (1912)

Nude Beauty

Artist: Yorozu Tetsugoro

A woman, nude from the waist up, reclines on a grassy hill with her left arm bent at the elbow behind her head, and her body turned sideways as her face turns toward the sky. The red boughs of trees frame either side of the high horizon at the top curve of the hill, where a colorful vista opens beneath a dark blue sky with a prominent pink cloud. Everything in the composition, the high horizon, color palette, simplified forms, and vertical lines of the grass that move like flames, draw the viewer's gaze upward to the woman's face. Portrayals of beautiful women were an important genre of ukiyo-e and Japanese painting, yet the nude sensuality of this figure and Fauvist hues drew upon the Western tradition.

The woman's pose echoes Henri Matisse's Blue Nude (1911) and the energetic lines reflect the influence of Vincent van Gogh. This painting launched Yorozu's career when he presented it for his thesis painting at the Tokyo Art School, and the dramatic color palette made this work controversial for its non-naturalistic treatment and sexuality. Displaying the rebelliousness against the academic status quo that permeated his career, the artist not only boycotted the exhibition of his work but also refused his graduating teacher's certificate. The work has been heralded as the first Japanese Fauve painting and a great influence on Japanese Fauvist Expressionism, as the art historian Matthew Larking wrote, making the artist "the most representative Japanese expressionist painter of his age."

Oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan

Yorozu Tetsugoro: Self-Portrait with Red Eyes (1912-13)

Self-Portrait with Red Eyes

Artist: Yorozu Tetsugoro

This self-portrait, using a Fauvist palette in a Cubist treatment, depicts the artist against an intensely red background, as sharp angles and diagonals create his figure. His red eyes are triangular shapes, which further emphasized by the triangular yellow bordered by black and blue, appear intense yet exhausted, as the yellow droops toward his cheekbones. It is as if the artist has taken on the energy of the environment, saturated with red, its black and dark lines and diagonals creating a sense of aggressive commitment. With its unflattering treatment, designed to show the subject's sensibility, this image draws upon the Japanese tradition of the self-portrait that often exaggerated features in order to convey character.

Tetsugoro's work first introduced elements of the European avant-garde to Japanese artists in images like this one that fused several different styles. As the art critic, Michael Brenson said of this work, "With his droopy, vigilant eyes, this disheveled, defiant, self-conscious figure, part Cubist, part Expressionist, both confronting us and pinned to the red background, reflects the kind of determination and introspection typical of Japanese painting at the time...there is a will and confidence that artists of the previous generation did not have."

Oil on canvas - Iwate Museum of Art, Iwate, Japan

Kishida Ryusei: Road Cut Through a Hill (1915)

Road Cut Through a Hill

Artist: Kishida Ryusei

This canvas is particular for its point of view - as if confronting and looking up the steep road, its ascension is emphasized by the rock wall and its upper railings on the left and the angular shapes cut into it on the right. Closely cropped and emphasizing spatial relationships, created by vertical diagonals extending toward a v-shaped horizon with its deep blue sky, the painter said he desired "to directly face the mass of nature itself." Having studied the Western masters for a period of time, the artist wanted to return to the subject of nature, and here takes a road near his home as a kind of monumental subject.

Kishida began his career, influenced by the Barbizon school's Naturalism, but then studied with Kuroda who introduced him to the brighter palette of Impressionism. His artistic evolution took another turn with exposure to the works of Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cézanne. Around 1914 he began to study the works of Rembrandt, Van Eyck, and Dürer, creating works like this one, highly representational, using earth tones with strong highlights and precise detail. In effect, his landscape becomes a study of elemental forms and mass, employing a unique style. As the art critic Matthew Larking wrote, "Ryusei Kishida...remains a giant of modern Yōga, though his idea of 'modernism' would mostly have been unrecognizable to his Western counterparts."

Oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan

Yūzō Saeki: Standing Self-Portrait (1924)

Standing Self-Portrait

Artist: Yūzō Saeki

This self-portrait emphasizes the vertical form of the artist, standing in the middle of a road that dramatically narrows along its diagonals behind him, jagged dark trees and rocks lining each side. The figure looms above the landscape up into the sky, but seems also ravaged, as if emblematic of a ruined tower. He holds a painted covered palette in his left hand and a brush hangs, perhaps uselessly, from his right hand. The sky is scratched and rough, blotched by a jagged blue on the right of his head, and the artist's face is similarly gouged, his expression darkly outlined, his face grim. The work seems scraped into the canvas and conveys a feeling of desolation and trapped intensity. On the back of the canvas, Saeki subsequently painted another image, Notre-Dame at Night (Mantes-la-Jolie) (1925), where the cathedral, gouged in dark turbulent colors, similarly reflected the artist's despair at the difficulty of fitting into either the art world of Paris or his native Japan.

Saeki had moved to Paris in 1924 where he studied at the Académie de la Grande and was influenced by Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, and Maurice Utrillo. This particular painting followed from his meeting with the French artist, Maurice de Vlaminck, in 1924. He showed de Vlaminck what he felt were his best works, and when the French artist dismissed them as academic, the criticism precipitated a turning point and innovation in Saeki's work. Subsequently he painted this image using an aggressive brush stroke and scraping the canvas with a palette knife, creating a signature Fauvist Expressionist work. At the same time, the overall effect created by the carved and incised surface is reminiscent of Japanese woodblock prints.

Oil on canvas - Osaka City Museum of Modern Art, Osaka, Japan

Yūzō Saeki: Garage (1927-28)


Artist: Yūzō Saeki

This work, painted toward the end of Saeki's life, depicts an automobile garage in Paris. Its strongly outlined diagonals, intersecting a scraped grey sky, convey a powerful effect of urban ruin. The reductive color palette of red and yellow, contrasting with the white, black, and varying shades of grey, is roughly applied and scraped, so that the scrawled lettering of the signs have a graffiti-like effect. A woman, wearing a black dress and a hat with a touch of red, walks down the sidewalk in the otherwise empty scene. Her legs are thin streaks of white, and she seems almost an apparition, on the verge of fading into the black and white "FABRE" above her, as the artist suggests the doomed frailty of human effort and presence, in a scoured world.

Saeki died in a mental institution, suffering both from tuberculosis, and having had a mental breakdown. As the New York Times art critic Michael Brenson wrote, " When Saeki Yuzo, who is perceived in his country as a tragic hero, the Japanese van Gogh, died at the age of 30 in an insane asylum in Paris in 1928 - perhaps a suicide - he had been trying to paint in this void. Saeki continues to be an example to Japanese artists abroad of the difficulties in reconciling East and West."

His work had a noticeable impact on subsequent avant-garde artists, as the art critic Matthew Larking wrote, "In France, Saeki was a progeny; in Japan, an innovator... Saeki's essential contribution, while very short-lived, was to usher in a period in Japanese Modernism that overthrew the pre-existing reliance on the Impressionist model and encouraged freer Fauvist Expressionism."

Oil on canvas - Bridgestone Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan


Portrait of Chin-Jung

Artist: Yasui Sōtarō

This full portrait depicts Mrs. F. Chin-Jung, Odagiri Mineko, the daughter of the President of the Bank of Japan who was also a painter himself. Yasui's portrait was somewhat controversial in its time, as rather than conveying his subject as an ideal representation, in the tradition of bijin-ga (images of beautiful women), he conveyed her distinctive features and her individuality. Accordingly, the subject here is self-confident, and powerful, her body leaning back in her chair, and sitting, purposefully, looking ahead, without attempting to look at or charm the viewer.

The image is closely cropped, as only a sliver of reddish purple wall is left above her head, and her left foot extends outside the frame, suggesting that the figure directs and fills the space she occupies. The blue of her dress with its white pattern both unifies and invigorates the image, accentuated by the varying lighter blue and white swirl of the fabric that she sits upon. The chair creates a kind of sense of volume by its contrast between its solidly colored rungs and those that create a more sketch like effect.

The artist uses bold outlines and broad area of colors, drawn from traditional Japanese art, while creating a realistic, and sharply perceptive portrait in the Western tradition, creating a work with both authority and dissonance. As Brenson has noted, "Yasui Sotaro...indulges in disequilibrium and pleasure."

Oil on canvas - Tokyo National Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan


Mahiru no kao (Face in Midday)

Artist: Taro Okamoto

This canvas overflows with a Cubist inspired face, though depicted in dynamically fluid and curved overlapping planes, rather than sharp angles. Both the fluid lines and the resulting decorative effect are rooted in a traditional Japanese aesthetic, translated into a modern idiom. The face, rendered in a vibrant color palette, conveying the bright sun of midday, tilts to the left under a dark green hat, reminiscent in its color of military uniforms. Prominent eyes glance down toward a magazine open to colorful art images just below the flaring end of the nose, and in the upper right, a red cobbled street, white door, and part of a blue building with a red tiled roof are partially visible beneath a dark blue suggestive of the sky. While the work is energetic in color and line, the overall effect is dissonant, suggesting a person overwhelmed, an effect emphasized by the green and black outlines around the eyes, and their fractured gaze. What the artist suggests is a kind of modern hyperactivity, which stuns the individual, behind whom the dark blue lines of the sky suggest the weight of the past.

This work was exhibited in the 1st Modern Art Exhibition of the Modern Artists Association of Nippon, where Okamoto's Yushu (Melancholy) (1948) was also shown. At this point, Okamoto in his promotion of the avant-garde to challenge the stasis of society often employed garish colors, as he said, "the stone-age of art is finished," and compared the art world to "a Galapagos-like" realm enthralled by the past. As a result, while this work exemplified Japanese Cubism, it also influenced the formation of a newly emerging post-war Japanese avant-garde.

Oil on canvas - Taro Okamoto Museum of Art, Kawasaki, Japan


The Tale of Akebono Village

Artist: Yamashita Kikuji

This Surrealist image, which is reminiscent of woodblock prints depicting rural life, portrays Akebono Village, where a dispute with a landlord has led to the murder of an activist, and a grandmother has committed suicide after being tricked into bankruptcy. The grandmother is depicted on the right, hanging from the beamsThe dog, standing on its hind legs, carrying a satchel, and wearing a bow around its ears, is a Surrealist depiction of her now orphaned granddaughter. The murdered activist lies in a pool of blood where various fish lift their heads out of the water, while his severed arm holding a sickle rises out of the pool. A farmer with one hand on his hip and the other on the handle of his shovel stands above the man, and another man wearing an expensive silk shirt and vest, his head shrouded in white, kneels behind him, his left arm holding a weapon. In the background a green field, spread out like an inverted fan, extends toward the flat black mountains and in the field, a dog-like farmer carries his burden. The image is remarkably compressed, its planes and diagonals creating a sense of momentum as events collapse in a claustrophobically oppressive world. No one has a human face here, as some have been transformed into dogs, others disfigured by injury, and the faces of those who have carried out the violence are hidden. A multiple-faceted gaze is created by the shocked whites of eyes - of the fish, of the single protruding eye of the dead man, and in the fearful and submissive eyes of the dogs - to convey a sense of shock but also of the fracturing of human identity.

Prior to World War II, Kikuji had studied art with the noted Surrealist Japanese artist Fukuzawa Ichiro and been influenced by Max Ernst, Hieronymus Bosch, and Salvador Dalí. He was drafted into the military in 1939 and fought in China. After the war, his art was profoundly preoccupied with the horrors that he had seen and participated in during the war. Becoming an activist, he went to the village at the request of the Cultural Brigade of the Japanese Communist Party to make a kamishibai, a narrative told with a number of storyboards and accompanied by narration, but instead created this hallucinatory work that conveyed not only the story in a single image but the disturbing social reality.

Oil on dungaree - Gallery Nippon, Tokyo


Quo vadis

Artist: Kitawaki Noboru

This Surrealist painting depicts a bleak and empty landscape, most of it rendered in a broad area of white, except for the blue raincloud on the upper right that streaks the sky, falling upon a distant city, and a winding procession of people in mid left. In the center of the painting, his back to the viewer, a repatriated soldier wearing a worn suit and crumpled hat, a rucksack over his shoulder, and a book under his left arm, stands between a large snail shell on his left and a two-directional blank marker on his right. The marker has multivalent associations, as it points in two directions, both of which, in the context of the empty space, seem meaningless. With the cluster of rocks and two flowers at its base, it could mark a grave or the scene of a death, and its shape also resembles a cross and the shape of a kamikaze plane flown into the earth. Closer inspection of the winding procession shows the red flags of some kind of demonstration, driven by unknown purpose. The man is perhaps a self-portrait, reflecting that the artist was searching for direction, the "where are you going?" of the work's title, as he faces the emptiness of the post World War II world. The shell, representing a self-enclosed isolation, contrasts with the outward pointing marker, but the man seems stalled and indecisive as he confronts the view ahead, defined by the use of negative space.

Like a number of Japanese artists, Kitiwaki began exploring Surrealism in the late 1930s, at the same time Japan was moving toward ultra-nationalism. Kitiwaki combined his wide interests in natural science with exploration of ancient traditions like the I Ching, an ancient Chinese divination system. This later work shows his characteristic juxtaposition of ordinary objects to create dissonant and disorienting images, as Ritter said, he is "first and foremost a realist who believed that Surrealism could provide the means and methods for unlocking hidden meaning in the world as it exists - not its imagined alternative."

Oil on canvas - National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan

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Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle

Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Kimberly Nichols

"Yōga Movement Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. .
Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle
Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Kimberly Nichols
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First published on 25 Feb 2018. Updated and modified regularly
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